Editor's note: Clothing can be ranked first in "clothes, food, housing and transportation" and must have his reason. There are many people in China and different regions have their own characteristics.
In people's clothing, food, housing, and clothing, "clothing" is in the first place. This is not accidental. Because people wear clothes not only to keep them warm, but also to decorate their bodies and beautify their lives, showing their status, national beliefs, etiquette and so on. Therefore, ancient Chinese colorful costumes have become an important carrier of national history and culture.
Winter wears a cotton shirt in the summer and "breasts up" and "wears the skin in the afternoon."
Tropical hot, cold and constant cold, seasonal changes in clothing are not large. Only in the temperate zone and its vicinity, especially in China, in the winter, the coldest air in Siberia frequently falls south and the world is coldest in the same latitude; in the summer, the land is dry and hot, the south has subtropical high pressure control, and it is also the hottest place in the world at the same latitude. (except plateau). Therefore, China has become the place where the temperature difference between winter and summer is the largest in the world at the same latitude, and it is also the place where the human body feels the coldest and hottest summer in the world. For example, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, winter is often cold and cold, and in the summer, it often gets sweaty. In the summer, it takes a few kilograms of meat to lose weight.
However, people can't hibernate like animals, and they can't migrate like migratory birds. They can only adapt to increase or decrease clothes. Therefore, the eastern part of China is the place where the worldâ€™s clothing in the four seasons has the largest difference in the same latitude. Among them, the northeastern northeast China is the biggest temperature difference between winter and summer, so it can be said that the world's winter and summer clothing is the biggest place (Siberia, although the temperature difference between winter and summer than in the Northeast, but also the world's winter and summer temperature difference in the largest place, but where the winter is extremely cold and no summer Hot, dress changes but small).
As a result of the cold winter and summer heat, the temperature in spring and autumn has changed dramatically, making China the shortest spring and autumn in the world with the same latitude, and the fastest growing country in the spring and autumn. Especially in the north is the most significant. For example, Jiangnan can wear a spring sweater or wool vest. When he arrives in Beijing, he can wear a shirt even in a few years.
In addition to the annual changes in the temperature of the cold winter and hot summer, the daily changes in the temperature of the cold nights will have an important influence on the weather. In meteorology, the difference between the maximum temperature in the afternoon and the minimum temperature in the early morning is said to be a poor day. The average annual temperature in China is poor day by day, the south is generally around 6 Â°C ~ 8 Â°C, the northern climate is dry, about 10 Â°C ~ 14 Â°C. The Northwest Desert and plateau basins even exceed 16Â°C to 17Â°C. In the spring and autumn of the Turpan Basin in Xinjiang, there is the saying that â€œearly wears the skin and wears the noon in the afternoonâ€. However, I studied the daily temperature difference in the urban area of â€‹â€‹Turpan (where the weather station is located, 35 meters above sea level), and I believe that it is not possible to achieve the actual level of â€œearly-wearing the noonâ€.
However, I am convinced that it is true that our country may be in the Turpan Basin where â€œearly hustle passes through the noonâ€ (deep in the valley basin terrain is the place with the largest temperature difference in all terrain). The Turpan basin bottom, which is the bottom of the Aidin lake, is 154 meters above sea level, where the effect of the day's topography on increasing the temperature is poor.
In the summer of 2008, "China National Geographic" magazine organized an "Exploration of Extreme Exploration" scientific expedition. As a member of the expert group, I proposed to conduct a "hot exploration" at the bottom of Aiding Lake (basic copra drying in summer in recent years). We really found a place where our country could â€œwear the pipa in the morningâ€, that is, we observe the temperature difference between day and night on the 2nd and 3rd of August at the observation point that is 150m above the pelvic floor elevation. It is 24.6Â°C and 23.3Â°C, with an average of about 24.0Â°C. According to the laws of the climate, the average temperature difference between autumn and evening in Turpan is 1.5Â°C~2Â°C higher than in summer. Therefore, the average temperature difference between autumn and evening in Aiding Lake can reach as high as approximately 26Â°C (which is much larger for individual days), leading the country.
It means that in the spring and autumn of Aiding Lake there are a lot of days when the maximum temperature in the afternoon can be as high as 30Â°C or more, and the minimum temperature in the early morning can be as low as about 4Â°C or less. Can't such a day be "wearing the skin early in the afternoon?" In the first 4 hours or so after sunrise there, according to my calculations, the temperature will increase by 16Â°C to 18Â°C. So if there are residents in the future, I really don't know how often they should change clothes.
The north of Linyi Cotton is wearing a special special climate. The reason why the cold in winter is due to the cold air in the north of Siberia (northern hemisphere cold pole) is affected, so especially in the north, the winter is particularly cold and needs special warm clothing.
For example, ethnic groups such as Oroqen, who lived in the Greater Khingan Range and its vicinity, used to live mainly in safari. It is the coldest place in China's winter, and the extreme minimum temperature can drop to minus 50Â°C. Their leather clothes mainly use warm and light raccoon skins. They use a complete fur cap made of scalp. Because of their vivid image, they also confuse prey in hunting. The soles of the raccoon leather boots are sewn with the neck skin of the raccoon. They are warm, light, and have no sound. They can be approached by beasts and are not easily detected.
Hezhe people living in the Northeast Sanjiang Plain used to live in fishing and hunting, so they also wear their unique fish leather clothing. Because Heilongjiang rivers are cold in winter and cool in summer, they produce a large amount of fish (such as whiphead and ichthyotes), and they have good leather and thick leather. After being dried and beaten, it becomes light, warm, wear-resistant and impervious. Fish skin trousers are still their fishing clothes.
Mongolian robes are prevalent in Mongolian areas. The large hem of the Mongolian robe is both easy to ride and protects the feet from cold when riding horses. The warmest Mongolian gowns are often sewn with double skins, with a layer of fur facing in and a layer of fur facing outwards. The belt can be brewed by cold wind, matched with boots suitable for riding, and covered with felt socks, which can withstand extreme cold temperatures of 40 to 50 degrees.
At the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is four or five kilometers above sea level, due to the climate characteristics of the low-latitude plateau, the gowns that protect the cold in winter are Tibetan robes. The winter gown is made of leather, long sleeves, wide waist, hypertrophy, and long length. When wearing a belt, you must first pull up the robe until the lower hem is lower than the knee, put the robe behind the belt, so the waist naturally forms a large pocket, can carry personal belongings, women even installed (back) into the child. Unfastening the belt at night, the Tibetan robe became a sleeping bag.
The Tibetan robe is very suitable for the heat flow in the low-latitude plateau under the sun, while the rain and snow hail come up and the temperature drops rapidly, and the body feels a great change in temperature and other weather features. So when it's hot, you often wear your left sleeve. When the heat is applied, the right sleeve is also taken off the waist and is flexible and convenient.
In tropical regions such as South China and southern Yunnan, the climate is hot and the clothing is young and thin. A typical example is the women's skirts in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan. A thin piece of cloth, connected end-to-end, three-fold and two-wrapped, and finally it was not so tight at the waist, and it was not even worn by a belt. Therefore, "Yunnan 18 strange" said, "The big girl does not have a waistband."
Also worth mentioning is the clothes. This is a peasant rain gear in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Farming was done all seasons, but it was almost rainy in all four seasons. Wearing a drape, a "raincoat" made of straw, can free up her hands to do farm work in the rain. Although straw is easy to get wet by the rain, it can still work under light rain because the grass stalks down can guide the rain down.
According to records, the "headdress" of women in the Penghu Islands in Taiwan Province of China is very strange. They masked them with two towels, put one on the next, and only left a slit in the eye. It looked a little scary. Originally, it was mainly because of the high winds in the Taiwan Strait. Facial exposure was affected by the sea caused by strong winds. This is the same as the effect of wearing bizarre masks by women in the North Port of Fano Island, Denmark.
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